Time, "Happenings," and Quantum Reality:
A subjective event is an event that exists inside the mind. An objective event is an event that exists outside the mind (i.e., an event that exists independently of the mind).
The word "happen" implies a passage of time. In order for an event to "happen," time has to pass.
Let us suppose that E1 is an objective event. In order for E1 to "happen," an objectively flowing time must exist.
If an objectively flowing time does not exist, nothing can "happen" objectively (i.e., nothing can "happen" outside the mind).
What is the nature of quantum reality (i.e., "QR")? Does anything "happen" in this reality?
- Subjective events (e.g., conscious observations) "happen."(1)
- Objective events (i.e., superspace events) do not "happen."(2)(3)
Notes for Part I:
1. Subjective events "happen" in quantum reality (QR) because consciousness flows.
2. Objective events do not "happen" in QR because superspace is static.
3. The physical quantum world is an abstract world of possibilities (potentialities). Nothing actually "happens" in this world. (See: Nick Herbert, Quantum Reality: Beyond the New Physics (New York: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1985), 27.)
Let us suppose that Ann is a time traveler who lives in the universe "U1." In order for a paradox to arise when Ann travels backward in time, statements S1 and S2 below must both be true. Note however: These statements are both false. Since S1 and S2 are false, we must conclude the following: When Ann travels backward in time, a paradox does not arise.(1)
Statement S1: "Objective events 'happen' in U1."(2)
Statement S2: "An objective event exists in U1 that both 'happens' and does not 'happen'."(3)(4)
A "subjective happening" is a "subjective experience that happens inside an individual mind." An "objective happening" is an "objective event that happens outside the mind." Ann's experience of traveling backward in time is a "subjective happening" (not an "objective happening").
The events that create the grandfather paradox (i.e., "GP") are objective, physical events that "happen" outside the mind. In U1, objective, physical events do not "happen." Therefore, in that universe, the events that create GP do not "happen."
If the events that create GP do not "happen," GP does not arise. In U1, the events that create GP do not "happen." Therefore, in that universe, GP does not arise.(5)
Notes for Part II:
1. S1 and S2 are always false. Since these statements are always false, we conclude the following: In U1, backward time travel never gives rise to paradox.
2. If an objectively flowing time does not exist, objective events do not "happen." In U1, an objectively flowing time does not exist. Therefore, in that universe, objective events do not "happen."
3. Statement S2 presumes that objective events "happen" in the universe U1. Note however: Objective events do not "happen" in U1. Statement S2 is therefore false.
4. In order for statement S2 to be true, S1 must be true. Since S1 is not true, S2 is not true.
5. We must not confuse the "grandfather paradox" (i.e., "GP") with the "concept of the grandfather paradox" (i.e., "CGP"). GP is a scenario that arises outside the mind. CGP is a thought that resides within the mind.
Clarification of the Article